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Ingredient Extraction, Fractionation, and Purification

The next step involves extracting desired ingredients from developed crops. There are two steps needed to obtain proteins, flavours, aromas, colours, oils, and bioactive compounds from raw plant materials while ensuring high purity and functionality:

Ingredient Extraction: The initial step involves extracting target components from the plant matrix. The extraction methods include dehulling, milling, solvent extraction, cold pressing, steam distillation, or other techniques. Even after extraction, the obtained mixture still contains unnecessary compounds with unwanted features.

Fractionation and Purification: Fractionation is the process of separating the extracted mixture into different fractions based on specific properties such as molecular weight, solubility, or chemical structure. Dry fractionation can be achieved through sieving, sifting, air classification, electrostatic separation, or a combination of these solvent-free techniques. In contrast, wet fractionation uses solvents to extract, precipitate, and centrifuge proteins, oils, carbohydrates, and fibres. Techniques like chromatography, filtration, distillation, or crystallisation are used to isolate and refine these fractions to the standard of purity needed for the desired ingredient.

These purified ingredients are then supplied to product developers for final modification.

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