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Texturisation experiments test different formulations to see how they perform. The goal is to employ mechanical or biological texturisation methods that transform the globular proteins in plants to mimic the aligned and crosslinked fibrous proteins in animals. This transformation aims to replicate the hierarchical structure of molecules contributing to the texture of animal skeletal muscle.

Mechanical texturisation methods involve applying heat and shear to create aligned protein fibres. The main processes used in the industry include high- and low-moisture extrusion, shear cell technology, 3D printing, wet spinning, and electrospinning. Notably, high- and low-moisture extrusion have been the most scalable and successful methods for recreating plant-based products. The former is utilised for recreating whole-muscle structures, while the latter creates dry textured vegetable proteins.

Biological techniques like enzyme treatments and fermentation can also be utilised to promote crosslinking and gelling of plant-based formulations.

The development team will continuously test different processing parameters. In the case of extrusion, some of the process parameters include moisture content, screw speed, screw configuration, die design, temperature, pressure, feed rate, and more. Slight changes to each parameter will yield a markedly distinct texture in the final product. Experimenting with each formulation using different settings to achieve the desired texture is crucial.

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